The world labor market and the peculiarities of its formation
AbstractIn the article the process of globalization is considered and the magnitude of its influence is determined on various spheres of public life. Among the main features of globalization in labor relations, the author outlined the following: strengthening the social orientation of the world economy; democratization of labor relations; the internationalization of the requirements for the reproduction of the workforce; standardization of living conditions and work of people in different countries; coordination, harmonization and convergence of social policy of different states; liberalization of the conditions of the interstate exchange of labor resources. The author draws attention to the labor market of the European Union as the most developed. At the same time, the problems that are emerging in the labor market today are identified, in particular: the reduction of the employment rate due to the low birth rate, the migration of the workin age population, and hence the “aging” of the workforce. Among the factors of accelerated growth of labor productivity, which, according to the author, will contribute to the strengthening of the economy, the following are stated: reasonable growth an increase in the number of young people who will have university education, up to 40%; sustainable growth expedient use of resources and improvement of ecology; comprehensive growth – raising the level of employment, increasing the number of highly skilled specialists, and, as a result, strengthening social protection of the population. The author's point is that the improvement of the social and economic status of Europe should be fostered by the development of the labor market, employment growth and the eradication of poverty. Speaking about the structure of the world labor market, a new segment is associated with the use of highly skilled professionals; the proliferation of labor force originating from regions of the world with a low level of economic development. The article focuses on Ukraine as a labor donor country in Europe and in the world. The author finds that the national labor markets are increasingly losing their seclusion and isolation in relation to the international labor market, both through the migration of labor and capital, and through the gradual merger of national labor markets. The author argues that the rationalization and technical re equipment of production leads to the fact that economic growth is achieved, mainly due to increased productivity of labour. Therefore, in her opinion, such a concept as suitability for employment, characterized by a set of knowledge, skills and abilities, possession of approaches for the solution of industrial situations, as well as the ability and desire for continuous improvement and professional development, is important. The main tendencies of the world labor market are determined and it is established that an important tool for regulating the labor market is its monitoring and diagnostics. The author defined his own position on regulating the development of the labor market in Ukraine, where the state should stimulate economic activity and increase the competitiveness of the labor force, provide conditions for the economic freedom of the active population in the labor market, provide access to opportunities for the realization of interests of labor activity.
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