Paradigm for Medical Education XXI Century – Noohumanism or Transgumanism?
AbstractProcedural financial and legal theory, first of all, is associated with the It is indisputable that all of the humanity is in a state of systemic crisis. The population of Homo Sapiens for the first time in its evolution has obtained the capacity to reach complete self-destruction. It continues to grow in number, thus increasing environmental threats. Destructive processes prevail over constructive processes and the gap between the volume of scientific achievements and their positive use is increasing. Leading world scientists call the entire population of Homo Sapiens to think about and accumulate all possible resources on eliminating threats to the existence of mankind. But they do not offer real ways to salvation, because they`re not familiar with the new technologies - nootechnologies. Nootechnologies are different from all others by their environmental harmlessness, because by virtue they are natural processes that are cautiously guided by man. The group of major problems includes health protection, treatment of traditional diseases and those new ones created by damaged biosphere. This topic refers to the latest technology, medical robots and artificial intelligence. However, for the development of medical education and the training of young doctors, ethical issues are very important. The best doctors in Ukraine are urging colleagues to focus on working with students on ethical issues and professional integrity. For reaching success in the education of students, we consider the transition from a paradigm of humanism and neo-humanism to a much more constructive - noohumanistic one. The article introduces and explains for the first time the concept of "noohumanism", which is based on the achievement of modern noosciences, and not on the traditional theories of classical humanities and exact sciences. In the article the evolution of the paradigms is briefly presented: humanism - neohumanism - noohumanism - transhumanism. Also this article specifies the reasons for the first appearance of neohumanism in Prussia during fundamental reforms in secondary education and the invention of a model of a "research" university (Berlin, 1810). The reasons for the depreciation of the influence of German neo-humanism are clarified in the article. The attempts of its renewal in the Club of Rome and the activities of a large group of US scientists are mentioned. In particular, the achievements of Americans P. Kurtz and his colleagues in the renewal of neo-humanism were noted. The main advantages of the concept of "noohumanism" over all others and the necessity of its development and use are explained. Positive and negative traits of transhumanism are analyzed. The conclusions suggest the development of medical education on the basis of noohumanism and noosciences. The assumption about the possibility of creation and positive use of the theories of noohumanistic transhumanism is expressed. It should be noted that not only foreign but also Ukrainian scholars are studying the challenges of the future. For example, the main problems of the modern evolution in the medical field were thoroughly analyzed in our new scientific works presented by a well-known scientist, academician of NAMS and Hero of Ukraine V.M. Kazakov (2010; 2011). The main idea of his appeal to students - future physicians and colleagues - is not focused on mastering computers or new equipment. He considers the topics of ethics and professional integrity much more important. He appeals to all medical specialists in Ukraine to resist anti-moral ideas, which became the main threat that affects traditional Ukrainian archetype of human behavior and decency. Our article is also devoted to the high ethical principles crucial for the medicine of the XXI century. The main attention is paid to the conglomerate of ideological paradigms - humanism, neo-humanism, noo-humanism, transhumanism. The purpose is to form a clear idea about new foundations of future medicine and such educational instruments that might help the teachers of medical institutions of Ukraine to train wonderful medical professionals. The difference between our work and the most of similar ones is not only the use of classical laws and methods of philosophy and other humanities, together with the use of information from those young modern sciences that are deeply studying the activities of the human brain and the nervous system (ethology, neuro-molecular physiology, etc.), but also the integral nooanalysis, based on the first achievements of the group of noosciences (noophilosophy, noocognitology, nooecology, noopedagogics, etc.). In our teaching and research activities, we attach primary importance to monitoring as many reports of scientific discoveries and technological advances as possible, which allows us to offer students not only the opportunity to study the achievements of the classics of previous centuries, but also a basis for assessing the present and future prognoses. Therefore, in the article, we are guided by the principles of noohumanism, considering it the best paradigm basis for medical education.
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