Project management in educational systems
AbstractThe article discusses the problems of the modern textbooks and teaching aids on pedagogy, where the solution of management problems is the content of the chapter, which is often called “Management of educational systems”. Then authors define, that in scientific papers devoted to the problems of pedagogical management, the view of his specific object and subject is substantiated. So, it is considered that pedagogical management as a science of management of educational systems and processes is a branch of pedagogy, the subject of which is the organization of management in the field of education and in educational institutions. The structure of pedagogical management includes the following levels: a. management of the teaching staff; b. teacher activity management; c. student activity management. The authors believe that in pedagogical management there are two levels of management: the head of the educational institution and the teacher. The activity of the head is aimed at creating conditions for the effective functioning and development of the entire educational system of the institution; the task of the teacher-manager is the organization of educational work with the aim of developing cognitive activity and the formation of the student's personality. According to the authors, project management is among the “young” and most demanded areas of scientific knowledge and practice. Development of it over the past 50–60 years has gone from its understanding as a technological scheme for organizing work on the implementation of individual projects to the idea of project management as a methodology for system changes, which carried out in organizations, firms, corporations, territorial entities, across the country and interstate associations. The article also reviewed the most diverse areas of scientific knowledge. It is the project culture. We think that it is institutionally manifested in project activities, although it does not boil down to it. All of the above gives grounds for identifying historical and cultural sources of project management as a person’s ability, an independent type of professional activity and, finally, a cultural phenomenon. The authors think that in modern management concepts, there are two types of management - process (management of recurring activities in fundamentally unchanged external conditions) and project management (change management of the managed system). The latter is precisely the subject of research in the field of scientific knowledge and practice, called “project management” and the subject of one of the branches of management science - project management. In conclusion, the authors define the methodological foundations of project management in pedagogical management are system-activity, process, and resource approaches, which, being internally consistent, set the fundamental methodological orientation of research in the considered field of scientific pedagogical knowledge.
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