Self-congruity in the light of the theory, research methodology and applied research: key issues and perspectives

  • O. Gorbaniuk Institute of Psychology, University of Zielona Góra
  • M. Kolańska Institute of Psychology, University of Zielona Góra
Keywords: self-congruity, brand user image, brand image, critical review.


The aim of the article is to indicate key issues and formulaterequirements for a new conceptualisation and operationalisation of selfimagecongruity and its role in explaining consumer behaviour. A specialemphasis is put on the need to select a proper theoretical domain,advantages of applying typical brand user image as a point of reference insocial comparisons and relevance of the undesirable image as a potentialsource of avoidance behaviour. The analysis of self-congruity methodologypoints to a need to identify relevant dimensions in self-imagecongruity,provide a broader generalisation of results and development ofresearchprocedures for psychological realism in congruity measurement.


Aaker, J. L. (1997). Dimensions of brandpersonality.Journal of Marketing Research, 34(3), 347-356.
Aguirre-Rodriguez, A., Bosnjak, M., &Sirgy, M. J. (2012). Moderators of the self-congruityeffect on consumerdecision-making: A meta-analysis. Journal of Business Research, 65(8), 1179-1188.
Alicke, M. D., &Sedikides, C. (2009). Self-enhancement and self-protection: Whattheyare and whatthey do. EuropeanReview of SocialPsychology, 20(1), 1-48.
Ambroise, L., &Valette-Florence, P. (2010). The brandpersonalitymetaphor and inter-productstability of a specificbarometer. Recherche et Applications en Marketing, 25(2), 3-28.
Austin, J. R., Siguaw, J. A., Mattila, A. S. (2003). A re-examination of the generalizability of the Aakerbrandpersonalitymeasurementframework. Journal of Strategic Marketing, 11(2), 77-92.
Avis, M. (2012). Brand personalityfactorbasedmodels: A criticalreview. Australasian Marketing Journal, 20(1), 89-96.
Avis, M., &Aitken, R. (2015). Intertwined: Brand personification, brandpersonality and brandrelationships in historicalperspective. Journal of HistoricalResearch in Marketing, 7(2), 208-231.
Avis, M., Forbes, S., & Ferguson, S. (2014). The brandpersonality of rocks: A criticalevaluation of a brandpersonalityscale. Marketing Theory, 14(4), 451-475.
Azoulay, A., &Kapferer, J. N. (2003). Do brandpersonalityscalesreallymeasurebrandpersonality? Journal of Brand Management, 11(2), 143-155.
Belk, R. W. (1988). Possessions and the extendedself. Journal of Consumer Research, 15(2), 139-168.
Belk, R. W., Bahn, K. D., &Mayer, R. N. (1982). Developmentalrecognition of consumptionsymbolism. Journal of Consumer Research, 9(1), 4-17.
Boksberger, P., Dolnicar, S., Laesser, C., &Randle, M. (2010). Self-congruitytheory: To whatextentdoesithold in tourism?Journal of Travel Research, 50(4), 454-456.
Bosnjak, M., & Brand, C. (2008). The impact of undesiredself-image congruence on consumption-relatedattitudes and intentions. International Journal of Management, 25(4), 673-683.
Bosnjak, M., Bochmann, V., &Hufschmidt, T. (2007). Dimensions of brandpersonalityattributions: a person-centricaproach in the German culturalcontext. SocialBehavior and Personality: An International Journal, 35(3), 303-316.
Caballero, R. J. (1991). A fallacy of composition (No. w3735). NationalBureau of EconomicResearch.
Capelli, S., &Jolibert, A. (2009). Metaphor’s validity in marketing research. Psychology and Marketing, 26(12), 1079–1090.
Dauenheimer, D. G., Stahlberg, D., Spreemann, S. Sedikides, C. (2002). Self-enhancement, self-verification, orself-assessment? The intricate role of traitmodifiability in the self-evaluationprocess. RevueInternationale de Psychologie Sociale, 15(3-4), 89-112.
Fiske, S.T., Cuddy, A.J.C., Glick, P. (2007). Universal Dimensions of Social Cognition: Warmth and Competence. Trends in Cognitive Sciences, 11(2), 77-83.
Gorbaniuk, O. (2011). Personifikacja marki: perspektywa psychologiczna i marketingowa. Lublin: Wydawnictwo KUL.
Gorbaniuk, O., Dudek, M. (2016). Właściwości psychometryczne kwestionariusza do pomiaru wizerunku konsumenta. Psychologiczne Zeszyty Naukowe, 1(1), 1-16.
Gorbaniuk, O., Kowal, H., Razmus, W. (2009). Лексикальнатаксономія і факторнаструктурарисособистості, асоційованих з брендами. Соціальнапсихологія, 3-4, 24-54.
Gorbaniuk, O., Toczyńska, M., Osiak, A., Szostak, A. (2012). Taksonomia leksykalna skojarzeń i struktura postrzegania konsumentów marek. (W:) M. Górnik-Durose, M. Zawadzka (red.), W supermarkecie szczęścia. O różnorodności zachowań konsumenckich w kontekście jakości życia (s.159-186). Warszawa: Difin.
Graeff, T. R. (1996). Using promotionalmessages to manage the effects of brand and self-image on brandevaluations.Journal of Consumer Marketing, 13(3), 4-18.
Guzmán, F., Paswan, A.K. (2009). Cultural Brands from Emerging Markets: Brand Image across Host and Home Countries. Journal of International Marketing, 17(3), 71-86.
Hogg, M. K., &Banister, E. N. (2001). Dislikes, distastes and the undesiredself: conceptualising and exploring the role of the undesired end state in consumerexperience. Journal of Marketing Management, 17(1-2), 73-104.
Huang, H. H., Mitchell, V. W., &Rosenaum‐Elliott, R. (2012). Areconsumer and brandpersonalities the same? Psychology and Marketing, 29(5), 334–349.
Jamal, A., & Al-Marri, M. (2007). Exploring the effect of self-image congruence and brandpreference on satisfaction: the role of expertise. Journal of Marketing Management, 23(7-8), 613-629.
James, W. (1890). The Principles of Psychology. New York: Henry Holt.
Kim, J. H. (2015). Self‐congruityeffects: A criticalreview and anintegrative model. JapanesePsychologicalResearch, 57(4), 348-362.
Kleijnen, M., De Ruyter, K., &Andreassen, T. W. (2005). Image congruence and the adoption of service innovations. Journal of Service Research, 7(4), 343-359.
Kleine, R.E., Kleine, S.S., &Kernan, J.B. (1993). Mundaneconsumption and the self: A social-identityperspective. Journal of Consumer Psychology, 2, 209-236.
Kressmann, F., Sirgy, M. J., Herrmann, A., Huber, F., Huber, S., & Lee, D. J. (2006). Direct and indirecteffects of self-image congruence on brandloyalty. Journal of Business Research, 59(9), 955-964.
Landon, E. L. (1974). Self concept, ideal self concept, and consumer purchase intentions. Journal of Consumer Research, 1(2), 44-51.
McCracken, G. (1986). Culture and Consumption: A Theoretical Account of the Structure and Movement of the Cultural Meaning of Consumer Goods. Journal of Consumer Research, 13(1), 71-84.
McCrae, R. R., Costa, P. X. (1987). Validation of the Five-Factor Model of personalityacrossinstruments and observers. Journal of Personality and SocialPsychology, 52(1), 81–90.
Onkvisit, S., & Shaw, J. (1987). Self-concept and image congruence: Someresearch and managerialimplications. Journal of Consumer Marketing, 4(1), 13-23.
Phau, I., & Lau, K. C. (2001). Brand personality and consumerself-expression: single or dual carriageway? Journal of Brand Management, 8(6), 428-444.
Reeves, R. (1961). Reality in Advertising. New York: Knopf Publishing Co.
Robinson, W.S. (1950). EcologicalCorrelations and the Behavior of Individuals. American SociologicalReview, 15(3), 351-357.
Sirgy, M. J. (1982). Self-concept in consumerbehavior: A criticalreview. Journal of Consumer Research, 9(3), 287-300.
Sirgy, M. J. (1986). Self-congruity: Toward a theory of personality and cybernetics. New York: PraegerPublishers/Greenwood Publishing Group.
Sirgy, M. J., Grewal, D., Mangleburg, T. F., Park, J. O., Chon, K. S., Claiborne, C. B., &Berkman, H. (1997). Assessing the predictivevalidity of twomethods of measuringself-image congruence. Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science, 25(3), 229-241.
Sirgy, M.J., Johar, J.S.,Samli, A.C., &Claiborne, C.B. (1991). Self-congruity versus functionalcongruity: Predictors of consumerbehavior. Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science, 19(4), 363–375.
Sprott, D., Czellar, S., &Spangenberg, E. (2009). The importance of a generalmeasure of brand engagement on market behavior: Development and validation of a scale. Journal of Marketing Research, 46(1), 92-104.
Swann, W. B., Jr. (1990). To be adoredor to be known? The interplay of self-enhancement and self-verification. In E. T. Higgins & R. M. Sorrentino (Eds.) Handbook of motivation and cognition: Foundations of socialbehavior (pp. 408-448). New York: Guildford Press.
Teichert, T. A., &Schöntag, K. (2010). Exploringconsumerknowledgestructuresusingassociative network analysis. Psychology& Marketing, 27(4), 369-398.
Wang, C. P. (2010). The comparisons of real versus virtualproductpurchase: the effects of self-congruency and producttype. Marketing Theory and Applications, 21, 285-292.
Wicklund, R., &Gollwitzer, P. M. (1982). Symbolicself-completion. Hillsdale: NJ: Lawrence ErlbaumAssociates.
Zinkhan, G. M., & Hong, J. W. (1991). Selfconcept and advertisingeffectiveness: a conceptual model of congruencyconspicuousness, and responsemode. NA-Advances in Consumer Research, 18,48-354.

Abstract views: 37
PDF Downloads: 109
How to Cite
Gorbaniuk, O., & Kolańska, M. (2016). Self-congruity in the light of the theory, research methodology and applied research: key issues and perspectives. Fundamental and Applied Researches in Practice of Leading Scientific Schools, 16(4), 20-27. Retrieved from