Causing Reasons and Results of Migration in Georgia (In the context of gender)
AbstractMigration is one of the most important global problem. Voluntary migration is going with a rapid pace, what is promoted with the development of technology, the access of information, diversification of labor market. In Georgia, in the first years of independence, obtained in 90-ies of the last centuries, labor migration appeared. The main factor of intensive migration is worsening of socio-economic conditions and living standards of Georgian population. As a result of legal and illegal labor migration, healthy workforce – young people are migrating from Georgia. The largest number of emigrants is distributed in the age group between 25 – 35. Demographic aging appears in the country. In 1990-ies, in Georgia, on the background of difficult economic and political situation, it has been significantly increased the scale of external migration and as a result of it, the number of Georgian population has been reduced since 1993 year. The number of population consisted of 4929,9 thousand men in accordance with the 1st of January, 1994 year and by the 1st of January, 2018 year – the number of population was determined with 3729.6 thousand men. For the last 24 years, the number of population was reduced with 1200,3 thousand men and one of the main factor of it is migration processes. The number of emigrants in dynamics is growing and among them, the number of women is high. The reason why they`re going to emigration is poverty of Georgia, employment problem, also the income is low from households, what forces the woman (and man as well) to go to other country to work. The labor market in Georgia is so saturated that women are engaged in the least profitable sectors – such as health care, service sector, education. Their incomes are so low that they`re forced to emigrate. Most of the citizens, emigrated from Georgia send the money to their family members, what gives these families minimal social guarantees. Despite of many disadvantages, emigration is somehow positive process, especially for the developing countries, for which it`s very important international money transfer. The distribution of emigrated women and men according to the countries gives us an interesting picture. Women are mostly in the countries, where it`s easier for them to be employed (caretakers), most women are in Greece, Turkey and Italy, Most men are in Ukraine. In total, the highest number of emigrants are in Russia. Despite of the fact that, there`s not an exact answer on the question, what kind of influence has money transfer on economic growth, on the level of household of remitters, their contribution can be very important on education, health care and capital in order to improve accessibility.
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United Nations department of economic and social affairs -www.un.org 2017.
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