Prototypological approach to the study of the deep nature of human: based on the materials of the novel by Boris Akunin “Aristonomy”
AbstractThe article presents a discursive psychological analysis based on the paradigm of prototypology based on the materials of the work of Boris Akunin “Aristonomy”. The main storylines of the work are considered in the context of the methodology of therapy of academician Yakovlev. The story, the interaction of the heroes of the image is filled, in fact, with the theory of therapy, revealing the human perception of the world in a two-system coding. The discursive scheme “image - name” is presented. The author uses the fate-analysis theory in the analysis of the main programs and lines of the fate of the heroes, in which the fundamental importance is given to understanding the significant role of the Other, the ability and inability to constancy of philosophy and choice. The archetypology of K.G. Jung and its prototypologization in the heroes of the novel is presented. The role of Significant Others in the creation of subsequent stages of fate is considered. The main analysis focuses on the subject of betrayal, its two types: forced betrayal, and betrayal as a special type of individual human philosophy. The image of Philip is presented in such qualities as complaisance, flexibility, inability to kill. Philip is fastidious person and flexible guy, "where the wind blows- the smoke goes." The hero deduces the key formula of life: “To find a man and make sure that he could not do without me. And then in life everything will happen automatically. There will be the best fate that can be.” It is considered that Philip betrays only out of necessity. Prototypologically, he is represented as a common Jester- commoner. When we talk about Philip we are dealing with the highest degree of fateful survival. The second hero, Anton, betrays “because of thoughts”, each time being guided by a special idea. This idealistic super-idea justifies his vile act and he does it consciously. It is proved that the most important thing for Anton is freedom. Everything that freedom gives at one time or another is the correct philosophy. Prototypologically, Anton is represented as the Sharikov-aristocrate. When analyzing a novel, we are dealing with two types of people: a crime who can act according to the situation but does not have high knowledge - this is Philip. And we are dealing with people who do not know how to act according to the situation - this is Anton, who is completely deprived of the ability to act, he rolls according to a scenario that is developing and constantly remains alive. Based on the analysis of the novel material "death row", we find four types of people: "noble-sheep", "corpses", "irreconcilable" and "divine lucky". The prototypology of betrayal is considered in the context of the absence of a philosophical level among the heroes. The problem of the “average person” is being raised as an important subject of therapy, represented by a typical resident of Europe. It is indicated that the subject of European therapy is a simple average person, and the subject of Yakovlev’s therapy is two types of traitors: crime and idealists. In this context, the prototypology of Florence is considered. From the point of view of the description of the stages of therapy according to Yakovlev, the author identifies four blocks in the novel “Aristonomy”: Petrograd, Switzerland, Crimea, and the Red Army. The need for step-by-step therapy is justified.
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