The domain adjustment problem in the context of product brands: does user-imagery allow a human-to-human comparison?
AbstractExtant literature on self-image congruence has not yet come up with an answer to the question of whether the structure of traits describing individual personality differences is identical with the structure of attributes in terms of which consumers compare themselves to typical brand users. Providing a conceptual and methodological review of the literature, this paper applies a peer-rating, psycholexical approach to test the congruence between the structure of personality-trait lexicon of a brand user with the structure of personality lexicon of the natural language. Results of analyses of the personality lexicon structure reveal that typical brand users are described using fewer dimensions than human personality. The study concludes that personality scales developed on the basis of lexical material including the consumer context, and complying with the psycholexical methodology derived from human personality study, can be applied to self-image congruence research.
Alicke, M. D., & Sedikides, C. (2009). Self-enhancement and self-protection: What they are and what they do. European Review of Social Psychology, 20(1), 1–48.
Ambroise, L., & Valette-Florence, P. (2010). The brand personality metaphor and inter-product stability of a specific barometer. Recherche et Applications en Marketing, 25(2), 3-28.
Ashton, M. C., Lee, K., Perugini, M., Szarota, P., de Vries, R. E., Di Blas, L., & De Raad, B. (2004). A six-factor structure of personality-descriptive adjectives: Solutions from psycholexical studies in seven languages. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 86(2), 356–366.
Austin, J., Siguaw, J., & Mattila, A. (2003). A re-examination of the generalizability of the Aaker brand personality measurement framework. Journal of Strategic Marketing, 11(2), 77–92.
Avis, M. (2012). Brand personality factor based models: A critical review. Australasian Marketing Journal, 20(1), 89–96.
Avis, M., Forbes, S., & Ferguson, S. (2014). The brand personality of rocks: A critical evaluation of a brand personality scale. Marketing Theory, 14(4), 451–475.
Barsalou, L. W. (1985). Ideals, central tendency, and frequency of instantiation as determinants of graded structure in categories. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 11(4), 629–654.
Barsalou, L. W. (1991). Deriving categories to achieve goals. In G. H. Bower (Ed.), The psychology of learning and motivation: Advances in research and theory (Vol. 27, pp.1–64). New York: Academic Press.
Belk, R. W. (1988). Possessions and the extended self. Journal of Consumer Research, 15(2), 139–167.
Borkenau, P. (1990). Traits as ideal-based and goal-derived social categories. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 58(3), 381–396.
Borkenau, P. (1992). Implicit personality theory and the Five-Factor Model. Journal of Personality, 60(2), 295–327.
Capelli, S., & Jolibert, A. (2009). Metaphor’s validity in marketing research. Psychology and Marketing, 26(12), 1079–1090.
Caprara, G. V., Barbaranelli, C., & Guido, G. (2001). Brand personality: How to make the metaphor fit? Journal of Economic Psychology, 22(3), 377–395.
D’Andrade, R. G. (1965). Trait psychology and componential analysis. American Anthropologist, 67(5), 215–228.
D’Astous, A., & Levesque, M. (2003). A scale for measuring store personality. Psychology & Marketing, 20(5), 455–469.
Davies, G., Rojas-Méndez, J. I., Whelan, S., Mete, M., & Loo, T. (2018). Brand personality: theory and dimensionality. Journal of Product & Brand Management, 27(2), 115-127.
De Raad, B. (1998). Five big, big five issues: Rationale, content, structure, status, and cross-cultural assessment. European Psychologist, 3(2), 113–124.
De Raad, B., & Barelds, D. P. (2008). A new taxonomy of Dutch personality traits based on a comprehensive and unrestricted list of descriptors. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 94(2), 347–364.
Diggle, J. (2004). Theophrastus: Characters. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Digman, J. M. (1997). Higher-order factors of the Big Five. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 73(6), 1246–1256.
Fiske, S. T., & Pavelchak, M. A. (1993). Reakcje afektywne oparte na przetwarzaniu kategorialnym a reakcje afektywne oparte na przetwarzaniu analitycznym. Rozwinięcie w terminach schematów wyzwalających afekt. In T. Maruszewski (Ed.), Poznanie, afekt, zachowanie (pp. 53–101). Warszawa: PWN.
Fleeson, W., Zirkel, S., & Smith, E. E. (1995). Mental representations of trait categories and their influences on person perception. Social Cognition, 13(4), 365–397.
Fournier, S. (1998). Consumers and their brands: Developing relationship theory in consumer research. Journal of Consumer Research, 24(4), 343–373.
Galton, F. (1884). Measurement of character. Fortnightly Review, 36, 179–185.
Goldberg, L. R. (1981). Language and individual differences: The search for universals in personality lexicons. Review of Personality and Social Psychology, 2(2), 141–165.
Goldberg, L. R. (1990). An alternative “description of personality”: The Big-Five factor structure. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 59(6), 1216–1229.
Goldberg, L. R. (1992). The development of markers for the Big Five factor structure. Psychological Assessment, 4(1), 26–42.
Goldberg, L. R., & Somer, O. (2000). The hierarchical structure of common Turkish person-descriptive adjectives. European Journal of Personality, 14(6), 497–531.
Gorsuch, R. L. (1983). Factor analysis. Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.
Guadagnoli, E., & Velicer, W. F. (1988). Relation to sample size to the stability of component patterns. Psychological Bulletin, 103(2), 265–275
Gosling, S. D., Rentfrow, P. J., & Swann, W. B. (2003). A very brief measure of the Big-Five personality domains. Journal of Research in Personality, 37(6), 504–528.
Gorbaniuk, O., Budzińska, A., Owczarek, M., Bożek, E., Juros, K. (2013). The factor structure of Polish personality-descriptive adjectives: An alternative psycho-lexical study. European Journal of Personality, 27(3), 304-318.
Gorbaniuk, O., Kolańska, M., Wilczewski, M., Ivanova, A. (2017). A Lexical Study of Comparisons with Typical Brand Users of Goods. Applied Linguistics, 22(2), 29-44.
Gorbaniuk, O., Szczepańska, N., Suchomska, M., Ivanova, A., Zygnerska, M. (2014). Adjective markers of Polish indigenous lexical personality factors: A peer-rating study. Annals of Psychology, 17(2), 307-324.
Huang, H. H., Mitchell, V. W., & Rosenaum‐Elliott, R. (2012). Are consumer and brand personalities the same? Psychology and Marketing, 29(5), 334–349.
Judd, C. M., James-Hawkins, L. J., Yzerbyt, V., & Kashima, Y. (2005). Fundamental dimensions of social judgment: Understanding the relations between judgments of competence and warmth. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 89(6), 899–913.
Karampela, M., Tregear, A., & Ansell, J. (2014). When opposites attract: Incorporating trait complementarity into the measurement of self-brand personality alignment. In J. Cotte & S. Wood (Eds.), Advances in consumer research (Vol. 42, pp. 539–540). Duluth, MN: Association for Consumer Research.
Kline, R. B. (2005). Principles and practice of structural equation modeling. New York, London: Guilford Press.
Kunda, Z. (1999). Social cognition: Making sense of people. Cambridge, MA: The MIT Press.
Landon, E. (1974). Self concept, ideal self concept, and consumer purchase intentions. Journal of Consumer Research, 1(2), 44–51.
Lee, K., & Ashton, M. C. (2004). Psychometric properties of the HEXACO Personality Inventory. Multivariate Behavioral Research, 39(2), 329–358.
Lee, J. K., Hansen, S. S., & Lee, S. Y. (2018). The effect of brand personality self-congruity on brand engagement and purchase intention: The moderating role of self-esteem in Facebook. Current Psychology, 1-13. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12144-018-9898-3
Marsh, H. W., & Hau, K. T. (1996). Assessing goodness of fit: Is parsimony always desirable? The Journal of Experimental Education, 64(4), 364–390.
McCrae, R. R., & Costa, P. X. (1987). Validation of the Five-Factor Model of personality across instruments and observers. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 52(1), 81–90.
Milas, G., & Mlačić, B. (2007). Brand personality and human personality: Findings from ratings of familiar Croatian brands. Journal of Business Research, 60(6), 620–626.
Mohtar, M., Rudd, J. M., & Evanschitzky, H. (2019). Clarifying the brand personality construct in Malaysia. Journal of Consumer Marketing, 36(7), 869-884
Read, S. J., Jones, D. K., & Miller, L. C. (1990). Traits as goal-based categories: The importance of goals in the coherence of dispositional categories. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 58(6), 1048–1061.
Rojas-Méndez, J. I., Papadopoulos, N., & Alwan, M. (2015). Testing self-congruity theory in the context of nation brand personality. Journal of Product & Brand Management, 24(1), 18–27.
Saucier, G. (1997). Effects of variable selection on the factor structure of person descriptors. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 73(6), 1296–1312.
Saucier, G. (1994). Mini-Markers: A brief version of Goldberg’s unipolar Big-Five markers. Journal of Personality Assessment, 63(3), 506–516.
Saucier, G., Hampson, S. E., & Goldberg, L. R. (2000). Cross-language studies of lexical personality factors. In S. E. Hampson (Ed.), Advances in personality psychology (Vol. 1, pp. 1–36). East Sussex, UK: Psychology Press Ltd.
Saucier, G. & Srivastava, S. (2015). What makes a good structural model of personality? Evaluating the Big Five and alternatives. In M. Mikulincer, Ph. R. Shaver, M. L. Cooper, & R. J. Larsen (Eds.), APA handbook of personality and social psychology, Vol. 4: Personality processes and individual differences (pp. 283–305). Washington, D.C.: American Psychological Association.
Sirgy, M. J., Grewal, D., Mangleburg, T. F., Park, J. O., Chon, K. S., Claiborne, C. B., & Berkman, H. (1997). Assessing the predictive validity of two methods of measuring self-image congruence. Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science, 25(3), 229-241.
Shweder, R. A. (1975). How relevant is an individual difference theory of personality? Journal of Personality, 43(3), 455–484.
Steiger, J. H. (1995). Structural equation modeling in STATISTICA (Version 5). Tulsa, OK: Statsoft, Inc.
Stelmack, R. M., & Stalikas, A. (1991). Galen and the humour theory of temperament. Personality and Individual Differences, 12(3), 255-263.
Swann, W. B., Jr. (1990). To be adored or to be known? The interplay of self-enhancement and self-verification. In E. T. Higgins & R. M. Sorrentino (Eds.), Handbook of motivation and cognition: Foundations of social behavior (pp. 408–448). New York: Guildford.
Szarota, P. (1996). Taxonomy of the Polish personality-descriptive adjectives of the highest frequency of use. Polish Psychological Bulletin, 27, 343–351.
Szarota, P., Ashton, M. C., & Lee, K. (2007). Taxonomy and structure of the Polish personality lexicon. European Journal of Personality, 21(6), 823–852.
Tucker, L. R. (1951). A method for synthesis of factor analysis studies (Personnel Research Section Report No. 984). Washington, D.C.: Department of the Army.
Wicklund, R. A., & Gollwitzer, P. M. (1981). Symbolic self-completion, attempted influence, and self-deprecation. Basic and Applied Social Psychology, 2(2), 89–114.
Willems, K., Janssens, W., Swinnen, G., Brengman, M., Streukens, S., & Vancauteren, M. (2012). From Armani to Zara: Impression formation based on fashion store patronage. Journal of Business Research, 65(10), 1487-1494.
Wojciszke, B., Abele, A. E., & Baryła, W. (2009). Two dimensions of interpersonal attitudes: liking depends on communion, respect depends on agency. European Journal of Social Psychology, 39(6), 973–990.
Abstract views: 64 PDF Downloads: 30