Information in the modern digital world
AbstractThe article analyzes the concept of “information” in its different representations: in the form of documents, drawings, pictures, texts, audio or light signals, electrical or nerve impulses etc., considers the most significant properties of the information (objectivity and subjectivity; completeness; reliability; adequacy; availability; relevance; accuracy; value) which have lately gained a worldwide currency). It analyzes the topics of journal and online publications, IT expert reviews as to the researches on the Information Theory. It is noted that the Source, Signal Channel, Converter, Coding, Recipient are used for transferring information. It has been found that the data transfer can be analog or digital (binary signal stream) as well as modulated with analog modulation, or with digital coding. It has been determined that when transmitting signals two main methods are used in the modern world: direct transmission of signals with a preset original form (impulses bearing the value of binary codes) and transmission with signal carriers (in the mobile or satellite communication). The concept “Information Object” is highlighted: material objects and phenomena, abstractions, virtual entities; Storage Media: states of matter, parameters of physical fields, “thin-material” phenomena; Information Subject: people and other living organisms, program objects which actively interact with its information environment. It is noted that in the modern “digital” life the need for storing and accessing data at any time becomes very important for the user. The main physical media for storing information are listed. The Databases (Data Bank, Database System, Data Warehouse, Data Mart) for the personal data storage and secure access have been analyzed. The importance of the information security has been proved: protection against random factors, wrongful acts of the user, equipment failure and protection from criminal acts which consist in the disclosure of sensitive information, unauthorized access to the information as well as coding and cryptography.
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