Personal exceptionality of an individual’s existential experience

Keywords: personal exceptionality of an individual’s existential experience; crises; existential experiences; alienation; old age.


The article analyses theoretically the philosophical trends and psychological concepts examining the problem of an individual’s alienation. The article notes an existing parallel between formed alienation and denial or ignorance of such existential constructs as life meanings, human existence, an individual’s links with the world, attitudes to death, completeness of human life. The factors are analyzed that influence alienation with the world and self-alienation as well as the consequences of such interaction with the world. The processes of self-cognition and reflection are considered as the leading processes in elderly people’s cognitive sphere. Elderly people are characterized by acute age and existential crises, which are caused by both external and internal factors. The article substantiates that these crises can be overcame adequately by accepting one’s individuality and exclusivity as one of the ways of living happily at the old age. The article examines life meanings as they understood in different psychological schools, through goals, assessments, motivation, freedom, introspection, reflection. A social situation is changed at the old age because activities become less, access to many activities or to work duties is restricted (due to objective or subjective reasons), that affect an individual’s life. Active and passive forms of life at the old age are analyzed, which influence in various ways on negative emotions, self-acceptance, acceptance of others, a general psychological state. The article emphasizes that the cognitive construct “personal exceptionality of an individual’s existential experience” should be formed at the old age. The content of this cognitive construct is revealed, which is understood as an individual’s conviction in the uniqueness of his/her life path. This cognitive construct acts as a constructive defense mechanism, a strategy, and it opposes to the anxiety of non-being. For further research, “personal exceptionality of an individual’s existential experience” is proposed to study empirically in connection with elderly people’s hardiness.  


Abulhanova-Slavskaya, K.A. (1991). Strategiya zhizni [Strategy of life]. Moskva: Myisl. 299 s. [in Russian].
Adler, A. (1997). Nauka zhit [Science of living]. Kiev: Port-Royal. 286 s. [in Russian].
Adorno, T. (2000). Problemyi filosofii morali [Problems of the philosophy of morality]. Moskva: Respublika. 239 s. [in Russian].
Bodalev, A.A. (2004). O smyisle zhizni cheloveka, ego akme i drugih obrazovaniyah i ih vzaimosvyazi [About human life meaning, an individual’s acme and other formations and their relations]. Akmeologiya. №1. S. 15–17 [in Russian].
Bushanskiy, V.V. (2017). EkzistentsIalniy pIdhId do kontseptualIzatsIYi chasu [The existential approach to the concept of time]. NaukovI zapiski IPIEND. №5/6(91/92). S. 93–124 [in Ukrainian].
Gornostay, P.P. (2007). Lichnost i rol: rolevoy podhod v sotsialnoy psihologii lichnosti: monografiya [A personality and a role: the role approach in social psychology of personality: monograph]. Kiev: Interpress LTD. 312 s. [in Russian].
Emaletdinov, B.M. (2007). Vozrastnaya dinamika smyisla zhizni cheloveka [Age dynamics of human life meanings]. Vestnik Bashkirskogo universiteta. №3(12). S. 215–219 [in Russian].
Ermolaeva, M.V., Prihodko, E.V. (2011). Osobennosti razvitiya lichnosti sovremennogo pozhilogo cheloveka [Features of modern elderly people’s personality development]. Sbornik konferentsii NITs Sotsiosfera. №7. S. 100–122 [in Russian].
Karpinskiy, K.V. (2011). Temporalnyie svoystva smyisla zhizni i smyislozhiznennyiy krizis v razvitii lichnosti Izvestiya [Temporal properties of life meanings and a life-meaning crisis in personality development]. Tulskogo gosudarstvennogo universiteta. Gumanitarnyie nauki. №3. S. 368–378 [in Russian].
Krasnova, O.V. (2009). Osobennosti vospriyatiya sovremennoy sotsialnoy situatsii pozhilyimi lyudmi [The modern social situation as it is perceived by older people]. Psihologiya zrelosti i stareniya: Ezhekvartalnyiy nauchno-prakticheskiy zhurnal. №2 (46). S. 13–24 [in Russian].
Krivokon, N.I. (2010). SotsIalno-psihologIchnI osoblivostI rozvitku sotsIalnih poslug lyudyam lItnogo vIku [Social and psychological characteristics of social services to elderly people]. Problemi suchasnoYi psihologIYi: zbIrnik naukovih prats Kam’yanets-PodIlskogo natsIonalnogo unIversitetu ImenI Ivana OgIEnka; Institut psihologIYi ImenI G. S. Kostyuka NAPN UkraYini. Kam’yanets-PodIlskiy: AksIoma. Vip. 8. S. 512–521 [in Ukrainian].
Leontev, A.N. (1994). Filosofiya psihologii: iz nauchnogo naslediya [Philosophy of psychology: from the scientific heritage]. Moskva: MGU. 228 s. [in Russian].
Leontev, D.A. (2003). Psihologiya smyisla: priroda, stroenie i dinamika smyislovoy realnosti [Psychology of meaning: the nature, structure and dynamics of meaningful reality]. Moskva: Smyisl. 488 s. [in Russian].
Lengle, A. (2010). Person: Ekzistentsialno-analiticheskaya teoriya lichnosti [Person: the existential-analytic theory of a personality]. Moskva: Genezis. 128 s. [in Russian].
Maksimenko, S.D. (2013). PsihologIya uchInnya lyudini: genetiko-modelyuyuchiy pIdhId: monografIya [Psychology of human education: genetics and models: monograph]. KiYiv: Slovo. 592 s. [in Ukrainian].
Markuze, G. (1994). Odnomernyiy chelovek [A one-dimensional human being]. Moskva: REFL-book. 368 s. [in Russian].
Nitsshe, F. (1996). Ecco Home. Kak stanovyatsya samim soboy [Ecco Home. How to become oneself]. Moskva: Myisl, T.2. 829 s. [in Russian].
Sartr, Zh.-P. (1989). Ekzistentsializm – eto gumanizm. Sumerki bogov [Existentialism is a Humanism. Twilight of the Gods]. Moskva: Politizdat. S. 319–345 [in Russian].
Smulson, M.L. (2008). RozumInnya ta InterpretatsIya dosvIdu lyudmi pohilogo vIku. SotsIalno-psihologIchnI chinniki rozumInnya ta InterpretatsIya osobistIstyu dosvIdu: monografIya. [Understanding and interpretation of experience by elderly people. Social-psychological factors of personal experience understanding and interpretation: monograph]. KiYiv: PedagogIchna dumka. 256 s. [in Ukrainian].
Frankl, V. (2018). LIkar ta dusha. Osnovi logoterapIYi [A doctor and a soul. Basics of logotherapy]. HarkIv: Klub sImeynogo dozvIllya, 2018. 318 s. [in Russian].
Fromm, E. (1990). Begstvo ot svobodyi [Escape from freedom]. Moskva: Progress. 271 s. [in Russian].
Chudnovskiy, V.E. (2006). Stanovlenie lichnosti i problema smyisla zhizni: izbrannyie trudyi [Personality formation and the problem of the life meanings: selected works]. Moskva: MPSI; Voronezh: MODEK. 768 s. [in Russian].

Shamovskaya, T.V., Gorbunova, G.P. (2013). Osobennosti sotsialnoy identichnosti lyudey pozdnego vozrasta [Features of elderly people’s social identity]. Scientific research and their practical application. Modern state and ways of development. 1–12. October, 2013. [in Russian].
BerezIna, O.O. (2012). Krizoviy perIod u gerontoGenezI [A crisis period in the gerogenesis]. Problemi zagalnoYi ta pedagogIchnoYi psihologIYi: zb. nauk. prats Institutu psihologIYi imenI G.S. Kostyuka NAPN UkraYini. KiYiv. T. 24. Ch. 5. S. 7–12 [in Ukrainian].
BerezIna, O.O. (2005). SuchasnI psihologIchnI problemi starInnya [Modern psychological problems of aging]. Naukoviy chasopis NatsIonalnogo pedagogIchnogo unIversitetu ImenI M.P. Dragomanova. PsihologIya. KiYiv. SerIya 12. Vip. 4(28). S. 7–11 [in Ukrainian].
Yalom, I. (2004). Ekzistentsialnaya psihoterapiya [Existential psychotherapy]. Moskva: Klass. 576 s. [in Russian].
Yung, K. (2009). Soznanie i bessoznatelnoe [Consciousness and the unconscious]. Moskva: Akademicheskiy proekt, 188 s. [in Russian].
Freyd, 3. (1990). Psihologiya bessoznatelnogo: sb. proizvedeniy [Psychology of the unconscious: coll. of works]. Moskva: Prosveschenie. 448 s. [in Russian].
Kamyu, A. (1990). Buntuyuschiy chelovek [The Rebel]. Moskva: Politizdat. 415 s. [in Russian].
Romenets, V.A. (1989). Zhizn i smert v nauchnom i religioznom istolkovanii: monografiya [Life and death in scientific and religious interpretation: monograph]. Kiev: Zdorove. 192 s. [in Russian].
Haydegger, M. (1993). Byitie і vremya [Being and Time]. Moskva: Respublika. 447 s. [in Russian].
Yaspers, K. (2013). Razum i ekzistentsiya [Reason and Existenz]. Moskva: Kanon, Reabilitatsiya. 336 s. [in Russian

Abstract views: 34
PDF Downloads: 19
How to Cite
Lych, O. (2020). Personal exceptionality of an individual’s existential experience. Fundamental and Applied Researches in Practice of Leading Scientific Schools, 39(3), 55-62.